Comorbidity in learning disabilities

Dyscalculia: News from the web:

ADHD, dyslexia and dyscalculia are comorbid. Also, the underlying continuous traits are correlated (ADHD symptoms, reading, spelling, and math skills). This may be explained by trait-to-trait causal effects and/or shared genetic and environmental factors.We studieda sample of ≤19,125 twin children and 2,150 siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register,assessed at ages 7 and 10.Children with ADHD were more than 2 times as likely to have a learning disorder and children with one learning disorder were 3-4 times as likely to have the second learning disorder. Still, most children with ADHD, dyslexia, and/or dyscalculia (86%) had just one disorder.Cross-laggedmodellingsuggested thatthe trait correlations are due togenetic influencescommon to all traits, rather than causal influences. Thus, ADHD, dyslexia and dyscalculia seem to be comorbid due to overlapping genetic risks, rather than causality.

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